One of the cornerstones of a successful organization is having a sound financial management.Everyone with financial responsibility must understand the following terms:Assets, Liability, Running costs, Surplus,Deficit,Liquidity,Reserves, Balance sheet, Income and expenditure statement, Capital expenditure, Operating expenditure.
Keeping accounts-Accounting is the process of tracking and cataloguing income and expenditure.It is also a key tool for financial control.You will need to keep accounts that show daily transactions as well as an overall picture of the financial workings of the organization.Accounts should show income and expenditure and keep track of assets and liabilities.A petty cash account should be opened and kept separately to account for the actual cash kept by the organization.
Financial statements -The two main documents that need to be be presented to the membership of the organization are balance sheet and the income and expenditure statement (or profit and loss account). Complementary documents may be required.These documents will give members a feel for the financial stability of the organization and as stated above are tools for financial control.
Balance sheet – Your balance sheet is the list of assets and liabilities your organization has at a given time.It sets out the fullest financial picture of your organization at a particular time and reading.The balance sheet must contain the following:
- The final balances of the preceeding financial year.
- Break down of the capital employed
- Details of freeholds and leases.
- Value of patents and trademarks
- Valuation of fixed assets and how the figures we’re arrived at.
- Details of any investments and their values.
- Cash and debts
- Stock and the basis of it’s valuation.
- Total bank loans and overdrafts.
Income and expenditure statement This statement is an analysis of how the capital or net worth of your organization has changed over a given period.It is a record of income generated and expenditure incurred over this period.An income and expenditure account must show:
- Turnover: total value of income that your organization receives during a particular period of time.
- Income from rents and invest
- Equipment hire charges
- Depreciation charges and how they are arrived at.
- Interest on loans
- Tax charges (if applicable)
- Transfer to and from reserves
- Any exceptional accounting adjustments.